The Nexus between Socio-economics Diversity of Oil Palm Smallholders and Sustainable Development Goals: A Comparative Study in Sabah and Johor, Malaysia

Main Article Content

Shri Dewi Applanaidu, Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin, Mohammed Abdullahi Baba, Mukhtar Mustapha


The smallholders inclusive economic growth policies directly promote several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) especially in tackling extreme hunger, poverty, environmental degradation and gender inequality. Recent argument establishes that the socio-economic impact of oil palm on smallholders are inconsistent and varies across locations. In view of this, our study analyses the socio-economics status of oil palm smallholders and the variations in the extent of SDGs achievement in Sabah and Johor. The study retrieved primary data on relevant socio-economics conditions of oil-palm smallholders from both states using well-structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data involves descriptive techniques such as mean, standard deviation, frequencies, and percentages. While t-test and correlation analysis were used to determine the differences across states and gender in the achievement of SDGs. Findings indicate that smallholders have attained considerable number of SDGs in both Sabah and Johor. Although Johor was higher in terms of production, income, education, the gender inclusiveness was better in Sabah by having 29% female smallholders compared to 10% in Johor. Their average income was above national and international poverty line. Over 90% of smallholders attained at least primary education. Conclusively the smallholders have substantially achieved SDG1 (No poverty); SDG 2 (Zero hunger); SDG 4 (Quality education);  SDG 12 (Responsible production and consumption); SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth); SDG 13 (climate action). While suggestions are enumerated on the approach to further support the SDGs through education on sustainable approaches.

Article Details