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Glass ionomer cements were introduced into dentistry in the late 1960s and it’s used especially in the restorative dentistry. GICs are known mainly for their chemical bonding to the tooth, where in the coefficient of the thermal expansion is low and there is a lot of fluoride release and discharge. It has a wide range of applications in dentistry and said to be biocompatible with the dental pulp to a larger extent. Due to their poor mechanical properties and sensitivity to desiccation and moisture is present, modifications are definitely needed to produce a better product. Years of extensive research have yielded better products through many formulations with enhanced mechanical properties and reduced moisture sensitivity. Now, studies are mainly focused towards the nanoparticles, Bioactive glass, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, silica and zirconia to improve its properties. The objective of this study is to review the various modifications of GIC that could produce greater chemical affinity for GIC matrix as well as tooth structure which would increase the physicochemical properties of GIC.
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