Secularism in France Between Openness and Privacy: Islamophobia and Identity Dialogue as Models

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Abdul Mufid, Tri Wahyudi Ramdhan, Abd. Gafur, Muhammad Syaikhon, Aan Fardani Ubaidillah, Fika Fitri Asari, Nafiah, Syamsul Ghufron, Sri Hartatik, Supangat, M. Fadholi


Multiculturalism has been entrenched in the history of most Western countries since 1970 swith different nationals, ethnics, cultural and religious backgrounds. However, majority of studies have shown contrary reports in the last two decades. In the West, Islam is not a new phenomenon yet the study of Muslims in France poses some levels of intricacies. The dynamics of Muslims both internally and externally is interesting to study. Internally, French Muslims are from diverse ethnicities and races across Asia and Africa, which impairs its unity and integration. Externally, Islam is not a native religion in Europe, thus, it combats challenges to thrive in a new environment considering the fact that Jew-Christianism has long been a cultural tradition of France and Europe. Furthermore, the recent influx of Muslims from several unsettled areas in the Middle East and Africa is significant. Based on this background, the aim of this literary research was to determine the extent of Islamophobia in France. The results of the study showed that the strengthening of identity between Muslim and non-Muslim community groups led to the development of Islamophobia. This was due to some historical events ranging from the influx of large numbers of immigrants to France to the controversy over terrorist attacks which violated the values of civilization.

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