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Osteoporosis is a major public health problem because it leads to weakness of skeleton, increase risk of fractures particularly of the spine and hip, increases morbidity and mortality which are a huge burden on the health system. Each bone consists of a thick outer shell known as cortical bone and a strong inner network of honeycomb-like trabecular bone, with blood and bone marrow between the bone supports, so osteoporosis occurs when the supports that make up this bone. The skeleton becomes thin, causing the bones to become brittle and break easily. Osteoporosis is usually associated with postmenopausal women, but it can affect younger men and women, children and pregnant women as well. Known causes of low bone density include estrin deficiency, nutritional deficiency (low intake of calcium and vitamins D and K), limited physical activity, "weak" syndrome, and nicotine or excessive alcohol consumption. This study was conducted in the Department of Life Sciences - College of Science \University of Al-Qadisiya in cooperation with the laboratories of Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital and the Center for Genetic Blood Diseases in Al-Diwaniyah affiliated to the Diwaniyah Health Department and some private laboratories. The study included (60) patients by (30) patients with osteoporosis of both sexes. (9) males and (21) females, their ages ranged between 26 to 75 years, and they were compared with the healthy group, which included 30 persons, (15) males and (15) females, their ages also ranged from 20 to 70 years.
Patients were diagnosed as osteoporosis and controls as normal by measuring bone mineral density (BMD), using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In addition, serum osteocalcin measured by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). this study aims to assess the serum osteocalcin levels in osteoporosis patients and compared with healthy persons.
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