Role of Social Factors In Glass Ceiling: An Empirical Analysis Of Public Universities In Punjab

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Kanchan Rani, Ramneek Ahluwalia


Glass Ceiling is an invisible barrier affecting the promotion of women to higher echelons in a profession, especially women and other minorities in an organisation. Glass ceiling is any act in which individuals are dealt differently simply on the basis of their gender, rather than on the basis of their knowledge, skills or capabilities. It denies opportunities, privileges, or rewards to a person (or a group) because of gender. The current study is an effort to examine the role of social factors in strengthening the principles of glass ceiling. Social factors are the factors that affect people and various groups impacting one another through faith , customs, stereotypes, culture, social class, reference groups, focus groups etc. These factors include the various general factors at the level of human society concerned with social structure and other factors such as family work balance, organisation policy, perception of management and social processes that have an effect on the individual. The study intends to explore the various social factors that restrain women from reaching the upper ladders of academic profile. As per the requirement of the study, well-structured questionnaire was drafted. The four Public Universities from the state of Punjab constituted the sample unit namely: Punjabi University, Guru Nanak Dev University, I.K Gujral Punjab Technical University and Punjab Agricultural University. The sample size of 279 for the proposed study comprised of Professors, Associate Professors and Assistant Professors which was selected by using Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling Technique. Multiple Linear Regression models were developed by the researcher to study the reasons that prevent women from reaching the upper echelons of the academic profile.

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